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MGT 4540: Entrepreneurship and Venture Initiation

This is a class guide for MGT 4540.

Help Guides & Examples for Citation Styles

Text Citations
References are cited in text with an author-date citation system, while each item referenced in text must appear in the reference list (174).

One author: You are required to include the authors’ last names and year of publication, and encouraged to provide a page number where the information that is cited may be found. Ex: (Taylor & Green, 2004, p. 56)
No author: Abbreviate title. Ex:  (“Quest for Redemption,” 2007) 
Multiple authors:

2 authors: List both authors when you cite the work (175). Ex: (Wagner & Clarke, 1999)
3 to 5 authors: List all authors the first time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Kern, Cornwell, Jones, Berry, & Howard, 2003) In subsequent citations, list the first author followed by et al. Ex: (Kern et al., 2003)
6 or more authors: List the first author followed by et al. each time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Williams et al., 2007)

References
APA requires that the reference list be double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent (180). 

Book (202): 
Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Location: Publisher. 
Ex: 
Berk, R. (1981). Water shortage: Lessons in conservation from the great California drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge, MA: Abt Books.

Web page (205): 
Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Retrieved from URL
Ex: 
California Department of Fish and Game (2017). Coho Salmon. Retrieved from https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon

Journal article from an online database with DOI (198): 
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year) Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. URL 
Ex: 
Hladik, M. L., Domaglski, J. L., & Kuivila, K. M. (2009). Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events. Science of the Total Environment408(2), 356-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040

DISCLAIMER: This citation style requires format structure which is unable to be properly displayed. If you would like more information on format structure, how information should be displayed, or have other questions, please contact a librarian! 

Text Citations
A typical in-text citation is composed of the author's name and page number (54). 

One author: The citation for a paraphrased idea should be placed as close as possible after the borrowed container, at a natural pause in your sentence, so the flow is not disrupted (57). Ex: (Baron 194)
No author: If the the author is anonymous or an organization, your in-text citation contains the title, in entirety within the text or abbreviated before the page number in parenthesis (56). Ex: (Reading 3).
Multiple authors: 

Two authors: Include both last names in the in-text citation, connected by and (116). Ex: (Dorris and Erdrich 23) 
Three or more authors: The in-text citation begins with the first author's name followed by et al. (116). Ex: (Burdick et al. 42)
 

Works Cited
Format the works-cited list so that the second and subsequent lines of each entry are indented half an inch from the left margin (112).

Book (26): 
Last name, First name. Title of Container. Publisher, Year.
Ex:
Berk, Richard A. Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought, 1976-1977. Abt Books, 1981.

Web page (41): 
Last name, First name. "Title of source." Title of container, Other contributors, Publisher, Year, URL. Date of access.
Ex:
California Department of Fish and Game. "Coho Salmon." Fisheries Branch, 2017, https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon. Accessed 20 June 2018.

Journal article from an online database with DOI (110):
 
Last name, First name. "Title of source." Title of container, volume number, issue number (presented as no.), Year, Page numbers. Database name, URL.
Ex:
Hladik, et al. "Concentrations and Loads of Suspended Sediment-Associated Pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and Tributaries during Storm Events." Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 2, 2009, pp. 356-364. ScienceDirect Journals, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040.

DISCLAIMER: This citation style requires format structure which is unable to be properly displayed. If you would like more information on format structure, how information should be displayed, or have other questions, please contact a librarian! 

Text Citations
Citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year, and page numbers when quoting directly (45). If there isn't a date, use N.d. instead (46). When appropriate, pagination follows the year with no space between the colon and the page number (45). Ex: ...Orol (2010:1).

One author: If the author's last name is in the text, follow it with the year; if not, enclose the lst name and year in parenthesis (45). Ex: (Taylor 2005)
No author: Use a corporate author or an organization name instead of the author (45). Ex: (American Sociological Association 2014)
Multiple authors:

Two authors: Enclose both author's last name (46). Ex: (Wagner and Clarke 1999)
Three authors: If the work has three authors, cite all three late names in the first citation (46). Ex: (Kern, Cornwell, and Jones 1999) Corresponding citations use et al. after (46). Ex: (Kern et al. 1999)
More than three authors: Use et al. in the the first and subsequent citations (46). Ex: (Williams et al. 2007)

References

Book (48):
Last name, First name, and First name Last name. Year. Title of Container. Location: Publisher.
Ex:
Berk, Richard A. 1981. Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge, Mass.: Abt Books.

Web page (84):
Last name, First name. Year. "Title of Source." Title of Container. Location: Publisher. Date of access (URL). 
Ex:
California Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2017. "Coho Salmon." Sacramento, CA: Fisheries Branch. Retrieved June 20, 2018 (https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon). 

Journal article from an online database with DOI (51):
Last name, First name, First name Last name, and First name Last name. Year. "Title of Source." Title of Container Volume number(Issue number). Date of access (URL). 
Ex:
Hladik, Michelle L., Joseph L. Domagalski, and Kathryn M. Kuivila. 2009. "Concentrations and Loads of Suspended Sediment-associated Pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and Tributaries during Storm Events." Science of the Total Environment 408(2). Retrieved June 20, 2018 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040).

DISCLAIMER: This citation style requires format structure which is unable to be properly displayed. If you would like more information on format structure, how information should be displayed, or have other questions, please contact a librarian! 

Text Citations
Footnotes appear at the end of a page, while endnotes appear at the end of an article (671). A footnote or an endnote generally lists the author, title, and facts of publication, in that order (661). Notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, should be numbered consecutively with superscript (noted below as Sup. no.; Ex: 1), beginning with 1, throughout each article (666). Placement of a note number should be at the end of a sentence or clause (666). 

Footnote: For ease of reference, footnotes are preferred by readers, however, a page of all footnotes is daunting (673).
Endnote: With the main heading of 'Notes' at the end of an article or chapter, the flexibility to use endnotes are less intimidating despite the challenge of finding a particular note (673).

Bibliography
All sources to be included in a bibliography are alphabetically arranged in a single list by the last names of authors (685). 

Book (695): 
Sup. no. First name Last name, Title of Container (Location: Publisher, Year).
Last name, First name. Title of Container. Location: Publisher, Year.
Note: 
1. Richard A. Berk, Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought, 1976-1977 (Cambridge, Mass.: Abt Books, 1981).
Bibliographic entry:
​Berk, Richard A. Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge, Mass.: Abt Books, 1981.

Web page (753): 
Sup. no. First name Last name, "Title of Source," Publisher, Publication AND/OR Access date, URL.
Last name, First name. "Title of Source." Publisher. Publication AND/OR Access date. URL.
Note:
2. California Department of Fish and Wildlife, "Coho Salmon," Fisheries Branch, Accessed June 20, 2018. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon.
Bibliographic entry:
California Department of Fish and Wildlife. "Coho Salmon." Fisheries Branch. Accessed June 20, 2018. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon.

Journal article retrieved from an online database, DOI (730): 
Sup. no. First name Last name, "Title of Source," Title of Container Volume number, Issue number (presented as no.) (Year): Page numbers, URL.
Last name, First name. "Title of Source," Title of Container Volume number, Issue number (presented as no.) (Year): Page numbers. URL.
Note:
3. Michelle L. Hladlik et al., "Concentrations and Loads of Suspended Sediment-associated Pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and Tributaries during Storm Events," Science of the Total Environment 408, no. 2 (2009): 356-64, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040.
Bibliographic entry:
Hladik, Michelle L., Domagalski, Joseph L., and Kuivila, Kathryn M. "Concentrations and Loads of Suspended Sediment-associated Pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and Tributaries during Storm Events." Science of the Total Environment 408, no. 2 (2009): 356-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040.

DISCLAIMER: This citation style requires format structure which is unable to be properly displayed. If you would like more information on format structure, how information should be displayed, or have other questions, please contact a librarian! 

Text Citations
The author's last name, publication date, and page number when applicable, are needed within parenthesis to cite sources in text (787). 

One author: Citing sources in text includes author's last name, publication date, and a page number (787). Ex: (Taylor 2005, 56)
No author: If the author is unknown, the note should begin with the title (801). Ex: (Quest for Redemption 2007)
Multiple authors: 

Two authors (790): Combine the last names of both authors with and (790).  Ex: (Wagner and Clarke 1999, 5)
Three authors: Two or three authors of the same work are listed in the order used on the title page (695). Ex: (Kern, Cornwell, and Jones 1999,101)
More than three authors: For more than three authors, only the name of the first author is used, followed by et al (696). Ex: (Williams et al. 2007, 32)

Reference List
The year of publication is after the author's name, which makes it easy to follow a text citation to the corresponding source (787).

Book (790):
Last name, First Name M. Year. Title of Container. Location: Publisher. 
Ex:
Berk, Richard A. 1981. Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge: Abt Books.
Web page (808):
Last name, First name M. Year. "Title of Source." Publisher. Date of access. URL. 
Ex:
California Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2017. "Coho Salmon." Fisheries Branch. Accessed June 20. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon.
Journal article from an online database, DOI (792):
Last name, First name M., First name M. Last name, and First name M. Last name. Year. "Title of Source." Title of Container Volume number (Issue number): Page numbers. URL.
Ex:
Hladik, Michelle L., Joseph L. Domagalski, and Kathryn M. Kuivila. 2009. "Concentrations and Loads of Suspended Sediment-associated Pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and Tributaries during Storm Events." Science of the Total Environment 408 (2): 356-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040. 

DISCLAIMER: This citation style requires format structure which is unable to be properly displayed. If you would like more information on format structure, how information should be displayed, or have other questions, please contact a librarian! 

Text Citations
There are three major systems for referring to a reference within the text of a published work: Citation-sequence, Citation-name, and Name-year (550). 

Citation-sequence: Use superscript numbers (Ex: 1) within the text to refer to the end references (550).
Citation-name: Use superscript numbers (Ex: 2) within the text to refer to the end references (554). 

Reference List

Citation-sequence:
Number the references and order them within the list in the sequence in which they first appear within the text (550).
Citation-name:
Complete the list of end references for the work and then sequence them first alphabetically by author, then title (554).

Book (592):
Last name FM, Last name FM. Title of container. Edition. Location: Publisher; year. Extent. Notes.
Ex: 
Berk RA. Water shortage: Lessons in conservation from the Great California Drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge (MA): Abt Books; 1981.

Web page (628):
Title of container: Title of source. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date updated; Date accessed]. URL.
Ex: 
California Department of Fish and Wildlife: Coho Salmon. Sacramento (CA): Fisheries Branch; n.d. [updated 2017 Feb 23; accessed 2018 June 20]. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon.

Journal article retrieved from an online database, DOI (628): 
Last name FM, Last name FM, Last name FM. Title of source. Title of container. Year [date updated; date accessed];Volume(Issue):Page numbers. URL. 
Ex: 
Hladik ML, Domagalski JL, Kuivila KM. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events. Science of the Total Environment. 2009 [accessed 2018 June 20];408(2):356-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040.

DISCLAIMER: This citation style requires format structure which is unable to be properly displayed. If you would like more information on format structure, how information should be displayed, or have other questions, please contact a librarian! 

Text Citations
There are three major systems for referring to a reference within the text of a published work: Citation-sequence, Citation-name, and Name-year (550). 

Name-year: In-text references consist of the surname of the author or authors and the year of publication of the document, while the name and year must be enclosed in parentheses (551).

One author:
Enclose the surname and the year of publication in parenthesis (551). Ex: (Taylor 2004)

No author:
Use the first word or few words of the title followed by an ellipsis (553). Ex: (Handbook ... 2000)

Multiple authors:

Two authors: Use both last names separated by and (552). Ex: (Wagner and Clarke 1999)
Three or more authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. and the year (552). Ex: (Williams et al. 2007)

Reference List

Name-year:
References are in alphabetical order by author (561). 

Book:
Name-year (592):

Last name FM, Last name FM. Year. Title of container. Edition. Location: Publisher. Extent. Notes.
Ex: 
Berk RA. 1981. Water shortage: Lessons in conservation from the Great California Drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge (MA): Abt Books.

Web page:
Name-year (629):

Title of container: Title of source. Place of publication: Publisher; [Date updated; Date accessed]. URL.
Ex: 
California Department of Fish and Wildlife: Coho Salmon. Sacramento (CA): Fisheries Branch; n.d. [updated 2017 Feb 23; accessed 2018 June 20]. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon​.

Journal article retrieved from an online database, DOI: 
Name-year (629):

Last name FM, Last name FM, Last name FM. Year. Title of source. Title of container. [date updated; date accessed];Volume(Issue):Page numbers. URL.
Ex: 
Hladik ML, Domagalski JL, Kuivila KM. 2009. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events. Science of the Total Environment. [accessed 2018 June 20]; 408(2):356-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040.

DISCLAIMER: This citation style requires format structure which is unable to be properly displayed. If you would like more information on format structure, how information should be displayed, or have other questions, please contact a librarian! 

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