The 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was published in October 2019. Some departments and instructors may still be using the 6th edition. Please consult your instructor if you are unsure which edition to use.
References are cited in text with an author-date citation system, while each item referenced in text must appear in the reference list (174).
One author: You are required to include the authors’ last names and year of publication, and encouraged to provide a page number where the information that is cited may be found. Ex: (Taylor & Green, 2004, p. 56)
No author: Abbreviate title. Ex: (“Quest for Redemption,” 2007)
2 authors: List both authors when you cite the work (175). Ex: (Wagner & Clarke, 1999)
3 to 5 authors: List all authors the first time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Kern, Cornwell, Jones, Berry, & Howard, 2003) In subsequent citations, list the first author followed by et al. Ex: (Kern et al., 2003)
6 or more authors: List the first author followed by et al. each time you cite the work (175). Ex: (Williams et al., 2007)
APA requires that the reference list be double-spaced and that entries have a hanging indent (180).
Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Berk, R. (1981). Water shortage: Lessons in conservation from the great California drought, 1976-1977. Cambridge, MA: Abt Books.
Web page (205):
Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle. Retrieved from URL
California Department of Fish and Game (2017). Coho Salmon. Retrieved from https://www.wildlife .ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Coho-Salmon
Journal article from an online database with DOI (198):
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume number(Issue number), Page numbers. doi:
Hladik, M. L., Domaglski, J. L., & Kuivila, K. M. (2009). Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events. Science of the Total Environment, 408(2),356-364. doi:/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.040
The general rule on the use of numbers is to use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10 (111).
Use numbers expressed in numerals when (111-112):
Use numbers expressed in words when (112):
Combine numerals and words to express numbers when (112-113):
When conveying back-to-back modifiers. Ex: ten 7-point scales
When readability may suffer, spell out both numbers. Ex: first two items
Ordinal numbers (113):
Treat ordinal numbers as you would cardinal numbers (113). Ex: the fourth graders; four grades
Commas in numbers (114):
Use commas between groups of three digits in most figures of 1,000 or more (114).
Exception: page numbers page 1029
Plurals in numbers (114):
To form the plurals of numbers, add s or es along, without an apostrophe (114).
Ex: 10s and 20s; fours and sixes
Citation help using Credo Information Literacy Core!
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